Credit Memo 贷项凭证 & Debit Memo 借方凭证

Credit Memo and Debit Memo

Definition

Credit memo: A sales document created on the basis of a customer complaint. This reduces receivables in Financial Accounting.
Debit memo: A sales document created on the basis of a customer complaint. This increases receivables in Financial Accounting.

Use

You may need to create credit memos for various reasons (for example, because of defective goods or because you have overcharged a customer). Similarly, you may need to create a debit memo, if, for example, you have not charged the customer enough.

Credit Memo 贷项凭证,Debit Memo 借方凭证,一般是用来处理回扣、回款等问题。

总的说来,Credit memo和Debit memo是对企业向顾客已经交付的货物的价值进行调整的单据类型。举个例,如果您已经就所交付的货物向买主开具了100元的发票,可是由于货物质量的瑕疵,买主主张“货接受但必须削价10元”,如果您接受了这个主张,那您就得开具10元的Credit memo (即实际业务中的所谓“红字发票”)。总之,与原始Invoice的价值相比,增价用Debit memo,降价用Credit memo,两者都是Billing Document Type。

Credit Memo Request 和Debit Memo Request都是Sales Document Type,其原理与一般的销售订单类型并无质的区别。只是,两个Memo Request的下游Transaction都是直接参照订单创建Billing Document,而不需要有Delivery。Credit Memo Request –> Credit Memo,Debit Memo Request –> Debit Memo,这就是它们的流程。

在FICO中:

对于应收账款,给客户开发票,如果发票金额有误(多开发票),可以使用贷项凭证部分冲销,减少应收账款;
对于应付账款,录入供应商发票,如果发票金额有误(多开发票),可以使用借项凭证部分冲销,减少应付账款;

以上两种情况如果少开发票,则有两种处理方法:
1、冲销发票,重新开发票;
2、根据差额开发票。

这个概念和冲销的概念比较相似,冲销是全部冲销整个凭证,借项凭证和贷项凭证式对凭证部分冲销,更正凭证金额。

Via: NetWork

Total Planning & Single-Item, Multi-Level Planning

感觉上Total Planning就是Multi-Item, Multi-Level Planning,“多项多层”呗。事实上没什么“多项多层”,“总计划”和“单项多层计划”在多工厂计划中,对层的解释是不同的。总计划的多层是不跨工厂的,而单项多层的计划是跨工厂的,MRP运算一直展开到物料需求的底层。(以上针对无MRP Area)

对此,SAP Library有清楚的解释。

Single-Item, Multi-Level Planning:
If there are components in the BOM that are procured by stock transfer or production in another plant, then in single-item, multi-level planning the other plant is used for further planning.

Total Planning:
With stock transfer or production in alternative plant, the system creates the corresponding planning file entries in the alternative plant. If the alternative plant is included in the scope of planning, the system continues to plan the materials in the alternative plant. If the alternative plant is not included in the scope of planning or if you plan for a single plant without entering a scope of planning, the system does not plan in the alternative plant.

Availability Check & ATP

常说可用性检查或者ATP(Available-to-Promise),其实他们并不完全等同。可用性检查的方式有两种,一是ATP Logic,一是Against planned independent requirements。前者会全盘考虑各种Issues和Receipts,如计划订单、生产订单、库存、销售订单等,可配置。后者只考虑计划独立需求(PIR)与销售订单的供求关系,甚至不考虑库存。

ATP Quantity是Receipts减Issues的差值,该数量可供新的销售订单使用。

The quantity available to MRP for new sales orders.

The ATP (Available-to-promise) quantity is calculated according to the following formula: ATP quantity = warehouse stock + planned receipts – planned issues.

Low-Level Coding 低层次码

low-level_coding低层次码(Low-Level Coding)反映了物料在结构产品中所处的位置,低层次码由0开始,顺次递增,数字越大,所处层次越低。比方说成品A的低层次码是0,而它的原材料低层次码将大于0,如3,似乎产品的结构。注意:物料在不同产品中可能处于不同的层次,但一个物料在Client里头只有一个低层次码,其值为最底层的值(换句话,最大值),在维护BOM的时候自动赋予。

低层次码对MRP的运行是相当重要的,它决定了物料在MRP中运行的先后次序。MRP先计算低层次码为0的物料,再计算低层次码为1的物料,依次处理。

物料的低层次码可以在物料主数据或者计划文件(Planning file entry)中查看。

The lowest level that a material appears in any product structure of the company. The low-level code controls the sequence in which the material is planned in an MRP run: First the materials with low-level code 0 are planned, then the materials with low-level code 1, and so on. The lower the low-level code, the higher the number that is assigned to the material.

计划边际码(Scheduling Margin Key)

计划边际码(Scheduling Margin Key)是定义计划扩展的一些时间的,其中计划边际码涉及的字段有四个,分别是:未清期间、产前缓冲时间、产后缓冲时间、下达期间(时间单位均为天)。

未清期间:是指计划转换日期需要比开始日期提前几天,如果本来计划开始日期是20日,未清期间设置为2,那么计划转换日期就应该是18日。

产前(或产后)缓冲时间:指在正直的生产开始之前(或完成之后)需要经过多少天数的等待,产前(产后)缓冲时间的设置会增加生产周期。

下达期间:指计划开始下达到开始生产之间的天数。如果下达期间为一天,那么开始下达日期就会比生产开始日期提前一天。

via: 100easy

Work process

A process that as a component of an application server executes an ABAP application.

To process SAP requests from several front ends, an SAP application server has a dispatcher, which collects the requests and forwards them to work processes for execution.

There are the following types of work process:

  • Dialog
    For executing dialog programs
  • Update, Upd2
    For asynchronous database updates
  • Background (batch)
    For executing background jobs
  • Enqueue
    For executing lock operations
  • Spool
    For print formatting

Work processes can be assigned to dedicated application servers. In the service overview (SM51), you can see which work process types are provided by the individual servers.

Each work process is logged onto the database system as a user for the entire runtime of the SAP system.

Each work process is assigned for the duration of a dialog step to an ABAP program.

via: SAP Glossary

废品 Scrap

SAP中存在三种废品:

种类 业务场景 维护地点 备注
Assembly Scrap 装配时产生,就装配品(Assembly)而言,涵盖了过程中的所有问题 物料主数据 三种废品率,由上至下,是连乘的关系。如果维护了Net标识,则忽略Assembly Scrap
Component Scrap 投料前产生,因为采购、库存等原因造成 物料主数据/BOM
Operation Scrap 高价值组件投料前,会先对装配品质检,减少因装配品的问题造成损失 BOM

废品率的维护,影响计划、生产和成本核算。尤其注意,定义前评估一下废损率对实际操作的影响,有的企业废损率定义不准,导致订单确认时常常调整组件数量,影响操作效率。